Unit 50. Auxiliary verbs (have/do/can etc.) I think so /I hope so etc.
There are two verbs in each of these sentences:
to the party.
ten years ago.
In these examples have/can't/was/do are auxiliary (= helping) verbs.
You can use an auxiliary verb (without the rest of the sentence) when you don't want to repeat something:
- ‘Have you locked the door?’ ‘Yes, I have.’ (= I have locked the door)
- George wasn't working but Janet
was. (= Janet was working)
- She could lend me the money but she won't. (= she won't lend me the money)
- ‘Are you angry with me?’ ‘Of course I'm not.’ (= I'm not angry)
Use do/does/did for the Present and Past Simple:
- ‘Do you like onions?’ ‘Yes, I do.’ (= I like onions)
- ‘Does Mark smoke?’ ‘He did but he doesn't any more.’
We use have you? / isn't she? / do they? etc. to show polite interest in what somebody has said:
- ‘I've just met Simon.’ ‘Oh, have you? How is he?’
- ‘Liz isn't very well today.’ ‘Oh, isn't she? What's wrong with her?’
- ‘It rained every day during our holiday.’ ‘Did it? What a pity!’
Sometimes we use these ‘short questions’ to show surprise:
- ‘Jim and Nora are getting married.’ ‘Are they? Really?’
We use auxiliary verbs with so and neither:
- ‘I'm feeling tired.’ ‘So am I.’ (= I'm feeling tired too)
- ‘I never read newspapers.’ ‘Neither do I.’ (= I never read newspapers either)
- Sue hasn't got a car and neither has Martin.
Note the word order after so and neither (verb before subject):
- I passed the exam and so did Tom. (not ‘so Tom did’)
You can use nor instead of neither:
- ‘I can't remember his name.’ ‘Nor can I.’ or ‘Neither can I.’
You can also use ‘…not…either’:
- ‘I haven't got any money.’ ‘Neither have I.’ or ‘Nor have I.’ or ‘I haven't either.’
I think so / I hope so etc.
After some verbs you can use so when you don't want to repeat something:
- ‘Are those people English?’ ‘I think so.’ (= I think they are English)
- ‘Will you be at home tomorrow morning?’ ‘I expect so.’ (= I expect I'll be at home…)
- ‘Do you think Kate has been invited to the party?’ ‘I suppose so.’
You can also say I hope so, I guess so and I'm afraid so.
The usual negative forms are:
|I think so / I expect so
I hope so / I'm afraid so / I guess so
I suppose so
|->||I don't think so / I don't expect so
I hope not / I'm afraid not / I guess not
I don't suppose so or I suppose not
- ‘Is that woman American?’ ‘I think so. / I don't think so.’
- ‘Do you think it's going to rain?’ ‘I hope so. / I hope not.’ (not ‘I don't hope so’)